Pumping Past

The 1803 Joseph Manigault House was converted into an Esso station in 1922, and a fill up got you a free tour of the historic garden. The gas station closed by World War II, and the historic house served as a USO dance hall for service people in the area. I was saved by demolition by being bought by the Charleston Museum and converted into a museum house, where today touring visitors can enjoy its remarkable Federal-style architecture.

German Guests

The first World War II prisoners brought to Charleston were German submariners who were captured by the Coast Guard cutter Icarus in 1942, and a year later the West Ashley stockade was opened for Italian and German army prisoners, who were more than likely happy to have square meals instead of round bullets. The Axis prisoners had a near celebrity status, as Charlestoniains would drive past the camp on highway 61 to see them. And with farm hands off fighting in the war, the prisoners were loaned to local famers and marched into fields to harvest crops. One group of Germans was harvesting tomatoes for the first time in 1944 when a farmer gave them a midday break and brought out cases of Coca-Cola. The prisoners loved it, and the next week harvesting on another farm, were eagerly awaiting Coca-Colas at midday, but this particular farmer just kept them working to the point the Germans refused to go back to work unless they got the cokes. Although the war ended in 1945, farmers were reluctant to give up their cheap labor, and Axis prisoners were still in Charleston as late as 1946 before being shipped home.

Furry Facts

I thought I would be frank about the Eastern Gray Squirrel, and here’s Frank as an example. He’s actually a rodent in the Sciuridae family, related to the groundhog, and the name squirrel comes from a combination of Latin terms meaning “shadow tail”. The tail of this critter that visitors often see throughout the year walking in scenic, historic Charleston is both a cover, a decoy, and a warning signal of imminent danger. Squirrels make a variety of sounds, ranging from a purring that means contentment, to a short clucking bark that is meant to locate other squirrels, to a high-pitched squeal meant to warn that predators are lurking. Squirrels build nests where their young are born, and they are polygamous with any number of mates, and can live as many as 20 years, foraging for seeds and nuts that they cleverly hide in ground cavities that they are able to relocate months later. Most of all they are great climbers, and can hang upside down from lofty tree limbs for extended periods of time, holding on with one paw while digging through a nut. <img.src=”Charleston Wild Life” alt=”Eastern Gray Squirrel”

Washington Worthy

On my walking tours of historic Charleston, we typically go by this house on South Battery Street that was the home of William and Jane Washington. William was a cavalry officer and George Washington’s cousin, who came to South Carolina from Virginia to fight the British during the Revolution, and fell in love with Charlestonian Jane Elliott. Jane was in the city during its occupation by the British from 1780-82, living on Legare Street with her family, while William was still outside the city, carrying on the fight. The Elliott’s, like numerous Charleston families, were forced to have British military officers use their house for quarters and entertainments, and one of these social gatherings occured only a few weeks after William’s cavalry had chased the vaunted British cavalry off the field at the Battle of Eutaw Springs, and news of the battle spread throughout the city. Some of the same British officers who had faced William were now looking at the attractive Jane and making improper comments when she reminded them that she was engaged to Col. Washington. Apparently one of the British soldiers acted dismissively to her reply, saying disdainfully, “I would like to see this Colonel Washington” Jane responded by telling the group of British officers that they had seen Col. Washington, reminding them that he was the cavalry officer chasing them off the field at Eutaw Springs. After that, the British were more respectful of Jane, who married William and occupied this house until his death in 1810. <img.src=”Charleston History” alt=”William Washington House”

Formidable Form

Throughout the year, visitors from all over the world travel to scenic, historic #Clharleston, SC to enjoy the architectural beauty of this classic coastal city. One of the most charming aspects of this fabled Southern city is its wealth of iron gates and balconies that we see in abundance on my walking tours. What comes as a surprise to many who wander the picturesque streets of the city is that the often delicate-looking shapes of the hand-forged wrought iron gates are actually very strong. Wrought iron has an extremely low carbon content, allowing this material to be shaped easily by heating surfaces and pounding or twisting them with tools into elaborate patterns. The malleability of wrought iron is an indication of its tremendous tensile strength – much stronger than iron cast in a mold, which is nearly 4% carbon and would break if bent or twisted with great force. During the Civil War, cannon defending Charleston were often strengthened by heating a wrought iron ring, or band, expanding the iron to the point where it could be slipped over a cannon barrel breech and cooled to contract on the barrel surface. These strong iron bands allowed gunners to use larger explosive charges in the cannon and fire shells much farther. <img.src=”Charleston Architecture” alt=”Strength of Wrought Iron”

Maritime Mystery

It has now been 20 years since the Confederate submarine CSS Hunley was retrieved from beneath the sea, and two major mysteries linger still – how did the 8-man crew die, and why is this amazing piece of history not in a place where the public can see it on a daily basis? The Hunley was the first submarine in the history of warfare to sink an enemy ship, remarkable considering the little vessel was powered only by a hand-cranked propeller. Little more than an iron tube with an explosive protruding from a bow spar, the tiny sub sank the warship USS Housatonic off Charleston Harbor on February 17, 1864, but never returned. Buried under the ocean bottom for nearly 150 years, the vessel was retrieved completely intact, including the remains of the 8 crewmen, who were thought to have drowned. But a new study by Duke University scientist Rachel Lance concludes that all were instantly killed by the intense shock wave of the explosion. The Hunley was been under conservation management for 20 years and is now in incredibly good condition. But it sits in a warehouse in North Charleston where visitors and tourists can only see it on weekends. We have a maritime museum overlooking Charleston harbor – why is this amazing piece of history there where everyone can see it?  <img.src=”Charleston Civil War History” alt=”Submarine Hunley”

Obscuring Origins

There has been considerable effort in recent decades to rewrite History in order to make perceptions of the past fit certain ideologies of the present, and that is something I will gladly contest for the sake of the integrity and honesty of historic interpretation. One of the numerous canards I have found is the reference to the architectural feature, the cupola, as being of Moorish or Berber origins, supposedly introduced by Islamic builders to Europe in the 8th century. The term cupola comes from the Italian word meaning “dome”, and the domes of ancient Rome, such as the famous Pantheon, can be traced much further back in the past than the 8th century, and long before Islam even existed. I will give history credit where it is due regardless of politics or religion, but I will also call out something that is demonstrably wrong. I still hear tourists being told that the historic architecture of Charleston was based on the West Indies and Barbados, and that steeples and cupolas were ideas all borrowed by Europeans by someone else. That is simply not true. We are undeniably a very European city in the style of our buildings, and anyone can find much more similarity to our architecture in Europe than anywhere else.

Moss Mystery

I have had many visitors to #Charleston on my walking tours who ask about the “Spanish Moss”, wondering why so many live oaks in the older part of the city do not have any of it hanging from their limbs. The truth is, even arborists are not exactly certain why the draping gray moss has disappeared from some of the live oaks on which they are traditionally found. To explain my theory, first let me point out that “Spanish Moss” is not moss at all, but a flowering angiosperm whose real name is Tillandsia Usneoides. The plant is an epiphyte, meaning that it uses other plants as platforms to absorb its nutrients, mostly out of the air. The crevices of the live oaks do hold moisture that the plant needs, and I believe that it is the concentration of emissions in the older part of the city that has settled into these crevices, causing it to evacuate or die. Farther up the Charleston peninsula in places such as where this picture was taken near Ashley Avenue, there are not as many delivery trucks and leaf blowers polluting the air, and there is a wealth of the plant on live oaks. Still, no one knows for sure. <img.src=”Charleston Trees” alt=”Spanish Moss”

Ruin Reminder

I am often asked on my tours of Charleston whether Northern troops under Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman burned any of Charleston. Fortunately, Charleston was spared from Sherman’s destructive methods largely due to the fact that his army moved toward the middle of the state to destroy Southern railways in Columbia. But there should be no doubt as to what Sherman and his troops did. He was ordered by Lincoln’s Chief of Staff, Gen. Henry Halleck, to “lay waste to South Carolina”, and he certainly did. Nothing in Sherman’s path was safe, whether private homes, slave quarters, or in the case of the picture below, Old Sheldon Church near Beaufort, which was torched in February of 1865. Ironically, the church had been rebuilt after the Revolution, when the first structure on the site was burned by British troops during the American Revolution in 1779. Today, the old ruins stand quietly, surrounded by forest and faded grave stones. There is an Easter service held inside the ruin each year, but otherwise it remains as a reminder of the realities of war, and how much of the suffering is traditionally among non-combatants. <img.src=”Charleston Civil War history” alt=”Old Sheldon Church”

Critter Creativity

The second full weekend in February marks the beginning of the three-day Southeastern Wildlife Exposition here in #Charleston. This international arts festival features wildlife artists from all over the world, who bring displays of fascinating paintings, drawings, carvings, and sculpture to a variety of venues throughout the scenic city. There are also live displays of hunting dog skills and conservation efforts from groups such as the Center for Brids of Prey, dazzling the crowd with flights of hawks and eagles that were rehabilitated from injuries or sickness. Charlestonians have always had a love of animals and a great interest in events that featured them, such as the old days of the Cole Brothers circus that would come to Charleston each year, including the day nearly a century ago in the picture below, where featured elephants paraded up Meeting Street prior to the event.  <img.src=”Charleston Wildlife” alt=”Wildlife in Charleston”